Modern application development depends on automated testing, using test frameworks to ensure that code is ready to go into application packages and out to end-users. To get the most from testing, tests are written before code and can be integrated into source control and CI/CD (continuous integration/continuous deployment) pipelines. Tests should be everywhere in your development process. Need to merge a pull request? Test the code. Need to commit to a branch? Test the code.

But there’s one area where testing is hard, especially when it needs to be automated. I’m talking about the need to interact with and test dynamic user interfaces. Web application testing is a complex process. Tools such as Selenium and webdriver are key elements in automating page content and in ensuring that you’re testing both page elements and the application as a whole. They’re important if you’re using headless browsers in an application; I’ve been using a set of Python scripts in a Twitter application built around Selenium and Chromium’s webdriver support to automate taking screenshots from an aircraft tracking application.

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